Cross-sectional research

  • Hamaker, E. L., & Grasman, R. P. P. P. (2014). To center or not to center? Investigating inertia with a multilevel autoregressive model. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1492.

Longitudinal research

Multi-level research

Experience Sampling Method (ESM)

The Dynamics of Psychology

  • Psychological constructs can be conceptualized as dynamical systems, featuring complex emergent behavior:
    • Correlated responses
    • Stable "traits"
    • Phase transitions
    • Individual Differences
  • These systems can be portrayed as networks

Example 1: Early Warning Signals